BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY  

BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY  

  • Numbers to know
  • T-shutter speed快門
  • A-Aperture 光圈
  • Lens focal length 焦距
  • ISO- film sensitivity
  • Image size & format

 

 

  • Lens focal length 焦距
  • fish-eye (6-13mm) 魚眼
  • Superwide (13-24mm)
  • Wide (28-35mm)
  • (Human eye 50mm=40-60degree)
  • Macro lens 100mm微距/ 人像
  • Tele  200-500mm
  • Mirror reflex lens 300-500mm  波波鏡
  • compact camera1.5-1.6 x  crop factor
  • Fish eye
  • Mirror reflex-波波鏡
  • exposure
  • EXPOSURE 18% grayness (midtone zone V)
  • Zone system
  • system of exposure calculated by Ansel Adams
  • -eleven zones of brightness image
  • -zone 0- solid black
  • zone 10- pure white
  • Exposure value( EV)= combination of exposure time and aperture
  • exposure compensation snow  +1
  • dark subject -1

 

Picture1

  • T-shutter speed快門
  • b- 1/2000s
  • Hand held 1/60 sec to avoid unsharpness

Taking photo inside a moving car  1/500sec

  • 1/focal length for tele use 1/500 sec if using 500mm tele lens
  • L

 

  • APERTURE
  • Picture2
  • f-number(1 1.4 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 32)
  • the fraction of the focal length of the lens
  • F 2.8-narrow depth of Field-portrait
  • Low light environment
  • F 16 –widen depth of field for landscape
  • Control exposure and depth of  field

 

  • ISO value
  • ISO 100 normal
  • Increase 1S0 x 2 can decrease one EV (exposure value)
  • 1/125 sec 8  ISO=100
  • 1/60 sec 8  ISO =200
  • 1/60 sec 11  ISO= 400
  • Image size & format
  • Raw + jpeg highest
  • Film= 25 x 30mm=0.984 x1.88 in 20 million pix
  • Print need 300dpi     (dot per inch)
  • 12Rprint( 28 x 20.3cm)  need 8million pix
  • 16 x 20 inch for salon competition needs 29million pix  if 300dpi
  •  Or 18 million pix  if 200dpi
  • Digital camera 5-20 MB
  • Smart phone 1.5 MB
  • Low resolution
  • Format ratio
  • 3:2(4Rprint)
  • 4:3
  • 16:9  aspect ratios(TV)
  • Need 72 dpi or width has  1900 pix for landscape format and height has 1200 pix for portrait format.
  • Hyperfocal distance
  • Focus 1/3 of the way between the foreground & background (required zone of sharpness), because at moderate distance, the DOF extends twice as far behind the subject as in front.
  • Picture3
  • COMPOSITION
  • rule of thirds三分法
  • Dominant object & subordinate object
  • object on one of the junction points.
  • greece boat
  • FLASH SYNCHRONISTATION
  • Slow synch- a burst of flash with
  • longer    shutter speed
    • the flash light exposes main subject
    • & background is exposed by ambient light with longer exposure
  • Second curtain synchronization
  • (rear-curtain sync/ trailing sync)

 

 

High dynamic range

Eye=  10-14 f-stops of dynamic range

compact cameras (5-7 stops),

digital SLR cameras (8-11 stops).

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